How Glass is made?

Sand-Glass Thumbnail

We all have been using glass materials in our life so deeply that we never think about its origin. Generally, everyone knows that it is an industrial product, but ever wondered how glass is made? What is the basic chemical in it?

Glass is a chemical process sand as it’s the main constituent. Yes! Sand is what transforms into transparent glass. The process is called the PPG process.
This process includes the following stages-

  1. Melting
  2. Float Bath
  3. Coating
  4. Annealing
  5. Inspection
  6. Cutting.


  • SiO2 – Silica Sand
  • Na2O – Sodium Oxide from Soda Ash
  • CaO – Calcium oxide from Limestone / Dolomite
  • MgO – Dolomite
  • Al2O3 – Feldspar

above mentioned raw materials are mixed in a controlled ratio and heated up to 1500 degrees Celcius (Melting point of glass). Certain Metal Oxide is mixed with it to bring colors to the glass.

Float Bath:

Glass from the furnace gently flows over the refractory spout on to the mirror-like surface of molten tin, starting at 1100 deg Celsius and leaving the float bath as a solid ribbon at 600 deg Celsius.

Coating(for making reflective glasses):

The coating that makes profound changes in optical properties is applied by high-temperature technology to the cooling ribbon of glass. CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) is the most significant process used for it.


In this process, the glass is made to move through the annealing lehr where internal stresses are removed allowing the glass more prone to cutting.


This is the most vital part of any production process. Here any kind of fault is determined like bubble that is not removed during refining, non-melted sand grains.


In this process, the glasses are being cut into smaller sizes as initially, it was a huge size of the plate-like structure. The final glass is sold in a square meter.

The final glass to be sold is shown below-

Glass Slab

The above process is used for the production of fine glasses which is to be sold in tiles like structure. But for any kind of product like artistic products of glass, the process is limited. Sand is melted along with raw materials and metal oxide if needed. When it forms a lava-like state then the artist starts their work with several instruments.

Several artistic designs are shown below.

I hope you understood how glass is made and where does it come from. I hope you like this article and if you do so then please share this along with friends, family, and social platforms. Do not forget to comment in the comment section below.

Thank you!!!!

Also read: How paper is made?

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Jaikamal is a very fluctuating mind person who always looks for knowledge or resources of knowledge. He believes that knowledge is the key to success.

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