5th state of matter, BEC
Introduction:In 1924-25, Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose predicted the “Bose-Einstein Condensate “popularly known as BEC and sometimes referred to as the fifth state of matter. In BEC matter stops behaving as independent particles and collapse into a single quantum state that can be described with a single uniform wavelength.
There are four natural states of matter known to us-
Historically the distinction on these states of matter is made based on qualitative differences in properties.
The matter is Solid-state maintains fixed volume and shape.
Matter in the Liquid state maintains a fixed volume but variable shape.
Matter in the Gaseous state neither maintains fixed volume nor fixed shape.
Matter in the plasma state has both volume and shape as a variable quantity.
Now comes the fifth state of matter–
Formation of the fifth state of matter.
It is formed when a gas of bosons at low densities about (1/100,000)one-hundred -thousandth the density of normal air is cooled at a temperature very close to absolute zero (-273.15 C). Under such conditions, large fractions of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at this point macroscopic quantum phenomena, particularly wavefunction interference becomes apparently current research of 1995 proves that the fifth state of matter could be created but this aggregation could only be generated using high vacuum apparatus on Earth and was the state of extremely short-lived due to Gravity.
BEC also has applications on Quantum Mechanics, it is used to conduct quantum experiments to study Gravitational Waves or the Earth’s Gravitational Field.